轻松学英语:十个人名十种发明2015-12-13 14:36:08

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Bowler

  圆顶礼帽

  This iconic hard felt hat is named after William Bowler, the English hatterwho created it in 1850. It is believed that Edward Coke, the younger brother of the 2nd Earl of Leicester, initially commissioned the design for his gamekeepers who needed to protect their heads from low-hanging branches while on horseback.

  这种标志性的硬毡帽是以威廉·宝乐的名字命名的。这位英国帽商在1850年发明了这种帽子。据说,莱斯特伯爵二世的弟弟爱德华·寇克最初是为他的守门员委托设计的。他的守门员骑在马背上时,需要保护他们的头免受低垂树枝的伤害。boycott


Boycott

  抵制

  The term boycott entered the English language during the Irish Land War to denote a withdrawal from “commercial or social relations with a country, organization, or person as a punishment or protest”. It comes from the name of Captain Charles Boycott, a land agent in Ireland, who was a prominent early recipient of such treatment with the encouragement of the Irish Land League in the autumn of 1880.

  这个术语是在爱尔兰土地战争时期被纳入英语的。该术语表示不与一个国家,组织或者个人维持商业或者社会关系,以此作为惩罚或抗议的手段。这个术语来自于将军查理·博弈寇特,一位爱尔兰地产商。1880年秋天,在爱尔兰土地联盟的鼓励下,他是最早接受这项措施的杰出人物。Braille


Braille

  盲文

  It was the French educator Louis Braille who gave his name to a form of written language for the blind or visually impaired –now simply known as Braille. Interestingly, Braille devised the system after learning of the military cryptography of French Army Captain Charles Barbier. The officer had come up with a code of dots impressed on paper that allowed soldiers to communicate in the dark.

  这是一位法国教育家路易斯·布莱叶以其名命名了为盲人和视力受损的人所准备的一种书写语言,现在简称布莱叶盲文。有趣的是,布莱叶是在得知了法国将军查理·芭比的军事密码学之后,发明了这套系统。这位长官想出了通过印在纸上的点码让士兵们在黑暗中交流的方法。diesel


Diesel

  柴油机

  French-born German engineer Rudolf Diesel is credited with inventing the diesel engine (also known simply as diesel). He patented the design for a new, more efficient internal-combustion engine in 1892; the first prototype was exhibited in 1897.

  为了表彰这位生于法国的德国工程师汝道夫·迪叟发明柴油机,他的名字就被命名为柴油机。1892年,他用一个更有效率的新内燃机引擎为这项设计申请了专利。最初的柴油机原型在1897年被展出。Ferris wheel


Ferris wheel

  摩天轮

  The original Ferris wheel was constructed by the American engineer George W. G. Ferris. It was opened at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893 as the largest attraction with a height of 80.4 metres, intended to rival the centrepiece of the 1889 Paris Exposition –the Eiffel Tower.

  最初的摩天轮是由美国工程师乔治·W·G·费瑞斯建造的。高80.4米的摩天轮于1893年芝加哥世界博览会上作为最大的亮点向世人开放,为的是和1889年巴黎博览会的亮点——埃菲尔铁塔一较高下。


Heimlich manoeuvre

  海姆利克氏操作法

  The term Heimlich manoeuvre is eponymously derived from the name of Henry Judah Heimlich, the American doctor who developed the procedure in the 1970s.

  这个术语海姆利克氏操作法得名于亨利·J·海姆利克。这位美国医生在20世纪70年代发明了这种操作法。


Kalashnikov

  卡拉西尼科夫来复枪

  In 1947, the Russian lieutenant and small arms designer Mikhail Kalashnikov created a sub-machine gun for the Soviet Army. The AK-47, short for Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947, or simply Kalashnikov, went on to become the standard issue assault rifle of the Red Army.

  1947年,这位俄国上尉兼轻武器设计师卡拉什尼科夫为苏联军队发明了一款冲锋枪。AK-47是卡拉西尼科夫来1947型复枪的简称。它成为红军的标准突击步枪。


Mason jar

  梅森食品瓶

  This wide-mouthed glass jar, commonly also referred to as Mason, was created by the American tinsmith John Landis Mason, who was granted a US patent in 1858. Sadly his invention didn’t make him rich –Mason died in poverty in 1902.

  大口玻璃瓶普遍被称为梅森。这种食品瓶是由美国锡匠约翰·L 梅森发明,于1858年被作为一项美国专利。可惜,他的发明没让他变富。1902年,他在贫困潦倒中死去。


Petri dish

  皮氏培养皿

  German bacteriologist Julius Richard Petri was working at the Kaiserliches Gesundheitsamt (Imperial Health Office) in Berlin from 1877 to 1879 as an assistant to Robert Koch when he invented a transparent dish used for the culture of microorganisms –the Petri dish.

  1877年~1879年,德国细菌学者朱利斯·理察·佩特里在柏林帝国卫生局工作,作为罗伯特·科赫的助理。在这段时间里,他发明了一个微生物透明培养皿,又称皮氏培养皿。


Pilates

  普拉提

  Pilates –a system of exercises using special apparatus –got its name from Joseph Pilates, a German-born physical fitness specialist. He developed the system in the UK and US during the first half of the 20th century after having studied both Eastern and Western forms of exercise.

  普拉提是用特殊设备进行健身的锻炼方法,用约瑟夫·皮拉提斯的名字命名了它。他是德国健身专家。在二十世纪上半叶,他在英国和美国学习了东西方健身方式之后发明了这个锻炼方法。





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标题:轻松学英语:十个人名十种发明

作者:小麻雀

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